There isn’t any other activity than airline flying where several hundred passenger travel in the hands of the cockpit personal, mostly one person, airliner captain, in critical situations. Flight safety is measured and controlled in real time and is treated step by step when the flight proceeds. Traffic controllers clear up the flight corridors, navigation equipment gives information needed but the crew makes it all to work as an integrated system.

An airliner in flight is very vulnerable to all exceptional cases; technical, weather, operational or pilot error. The safety decisions must be done immediately, responsibility is undividable! The contrast between normal and catastrophic happening is huge; from the sun to the deep ocean takes only some minutes or less. That is the moral burden in airline flying, all in the hands of one person; his mental health, readiness to handle all situations, minimize risks, and to save passengers.

Safety culture forms a chain between all activities and actors in aviation business. Well done and accountable maintenance, meteorology, different airport services, air control, leadership and others make aviation safer.

I have often deliberated, as a former pilot and airline passenger, upon the mental health of the airliner pilot team, especially the psychic condition of the captain. On the absolute top of human hierarchy, as a commander of an airplane, the status itself is high but doesn’t tell all about the real personality, his mindfulness and responsibility. In example new pressures, political or religious fundamentalism, and different social values, priorities and fears open dangerous vision for mental disorder and devastating manner. (L-OF)

Weather as risk factor

In-Flight icing, turbulence, icing surfaces, storms et cetera are often main causes when explaining aviation accidents. Reduced visibility, associated with cloud base, mist, fog, volcanic ash or sand storms, can make safe flight difficult, even with the help of technology. Other risk factors; Run Way Contamination meaning standing water, ice, or snow on take-off, landing and manoeuvre surfaces. Wind Velocity; near the ground, the influence of wind on directional control and cross wind landings or take-offs can lead to problems. Precipitation; example rain, hail, and snow affect aerodynamics and visibility.

But normally there must be a reserve runway in the flight plan if in example landing conditions changes quickly and the weather minimizes can’t be reached.

A flight recorder, colloquially known as a black box, although it is now orange-coloured, is an electronic recording device placed in an aircraft for the purpose of facilitating the investigation of aviation accidents and incidents. Any type of aircraft in any condition of flight can be viewed in terms of its input parameters (e.g. control instructions) and output parameters (e.g. flight sensors), without any knowledge of its internal workings, as a black box model. The flight data recorder (FDR) is a device that preserves the recent history of the flight through the recording of dozens of parameters collected several times per second. The cockpit voice recorder (CVR) preserves the recent history of the sounds in the cockpit including the conversation of the pilots. The two recorders give an accurate testimony, narrating the aircraft's flight history, to assist in any later investigation. The FDR and CVR may be combined in a single unit. The two recorders are required by international regulation, overseen by the International Civil Aviation Organization, to be capable of surviving the conditions likely to be encountered in a severe aircraft accident. For this reason, they are typically specified to withstand an impact of 3400 g and temperatures of over 1,000 °C (1,830 °F) as required by EUROCAE ED-112. They have been required in commercial aircraft in the US since 1967.